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Sampiro. Статья из "Энциклопедии вампирской мифологии" Т. Бэйн

 
Sampiro (Sam-PEER-oh)
Variations: LIOGAT

Once any Albanian of Turkish descent would upon death become a type of vampiric REVENANT known as a sampiro, no matter how good a person he may have been or how virtuous a life he may have led. This curse also befell upon any Albanian who had committed an unnatural act, such as beastiality, homosexuality, prostitution, transvestitism, or heterosexuality with a Turkish person. Other means were attending a Moslem religious service, consuming meat handled by a Turk, or being a habitual liar or professional thief in life.

The sampiro returns from the grave three days after its death with its burial shroud wrapped around its body and wearing high-heeled shoes upon its feet. Its eyes are large and glow brightly. A small amount of dirt from its grave is inexplicably kept in its navel.

Every night it rises from its grave but is particularly fond of nights with heavy fog, as that will make its eyes glow even brighter than usual, as bright as the headlights on a car. Once it finds a victim, it follows behind the person making “kissing” sounds that can be heard clearly over the click of its high-heeled shoes. When it finally attacks, it drains a survivable amount of blood from the person and then flees the scene as quickly as it can totter away on its heels. Victims are left feeling tired and weak, and repeated assaults will eventually kill them.

Samodiva. Статья из "Энциклопедии вампирской мифологии" Т. Бэйн

 
Samodiva (Sah-MO-de-va)
Variations: Samodivi, Samovili

A type of vampiric wood nymph from Bulgaria, the samodivi (as they are collectively called) look like young women, wearing their HAIR down and loose, and are occasionally sighted with wings. They live in old trees or in natural caves and dress in simple clothes tied with a GREEN belt decorated with feathers, a bow and quiver slung across their backs. With little to fear, as they not only have the natural ability to fly but also have control over all the elements, samodivi patrol the woods riding upon the backs of stags whose bridle tack is reined with live snakes. Should a samodiva (“divinity” or “devil”) happen across a hunter, it will kill him, taking the unfortunate person’s head as a trophy and draining the body dry of its blood. Should he escape, it will cause a drought in his village.

Anyone who comes across a samodiva dancing at night in the woods will not be able to resist joining it, and will enjoy its merrymaking all night long. When the sun rises, only the samodiva remains; its dance partner is never seen again.

There is a Serbian myth that a samodiva named Villa raised Prince Marko, nursing him at its own breast. Because of this, the prince developed supernatural powers. He rode upon a winged horse named Dapple and had a samodiva stepsister named Gyura.

Source: Georgieva, Bulgarian Mythology, 75, 81; Mac-Dermott, Bulgarian Folk Customs, 68, 69; McClelland, Slayers and Their Vampires, 103; Perkowski, Vampires of the Slavs, 42

Salt. Статья из "Энциклопедии вампирской мифологии" Т. Бэйн

 
Salt (Sault)

Salt has long been used by man for purification, protection, and preservation; in fact, the earliest record of salt being used dates back to 2255 B.C. Among the many beliefs and truths that have been attributed to it are that salted food cannot be hexed, that making a circle of salt will protect whatever or whomever is placed inside, and that it attracts luck and money while driving away demons and witches. It is also used in some vampiric lore: it is applied to the shed skin of an ASWANG MANNANANGGAL; one can trap a CATACANO behind a line of salt; an ESTRIE will eat bread and salt to heal itself of any wounds it may have taken in a fight; and salt placed under one’s pillow at night will deter a GAUKEMARES from attacking, to name but a few.

Source: Barber, Vampire, Burial and Death, 68; Dundes, Vampire Casebook, 50; Gadsby, Sucking Salt, 67; Phillips, Forests of the Vampire, 62–64; Summers, Vampire: His Kith and Kin, 234

Sâbotnik. Статья из "Энциклопедии вампирской мифологии" Т. Бэйн

 
Sâbotnik (So-BOT-nic)
Variations: Sâbota (“Saturday”), Vâperar

From the Balkans comes a type of LIVING VAMPIRE known as a sâbotnik (“one born on a Saturday”). This individual, typically male, is marked by his community as a quasi-supernatural being who can see and identify vampires, demons, diseases, and magicians, as well as interpret dreams. Socially the sâbotnik is considered an outsider in his own community, but he is still obligated to perform his services. Although a woman may be born on a Saturday and thereby inherit the title of sâbotnik, she seldom has the actual ability of seeing vampires, let alone the ability to destroy them. Sâbotniks specialize in killing a type of vampire known as a VRKOLAK by using a gun or a knife. Like the VAMPIRDŽIA, the sâbotnik is very well paid for his services, either with actual money or with gifts.

Interestingly, dogs that are born on a Saturday are also considered to be sâbotnik. This is not because anyone believes that they were sired by a vampire but rather because they were born on Saturday, the Jewish holy day, rather than on Sunday, the Christian Sabbath. These dogs, like their human counterpart, are able to detect vampires and diseased individuals. The best sâbotnik dogs have four eyes, particularly pronounced eyebrows, or are large and solid black. Whenever possible, one of these dogs is used as a familiar by a vampirdžia. In extreme cases a sâbotnik dog may be buried with the body of a vampire that has otherwise been especially difficult to kill.

Source: AASSS, Balkanistica, 104; Keyworth, Troublesome Corpses, 131; McClelland, Slayers and Their Vampires, 97, 111

Ruvaush. Статья из "Энциклопедии вампирской мифологии" Т. Бэйн

 
Ruvaush (ROO-vosh)

The vampire lore of the Gypsies of Romania tells of a VAMPIRIC WITCH called a ruvaush. Aside from having the ability to create more of its own kind through magic, it can also shape-shift into a wolf, but one that is much larger than a normal wolf. Grevase of Tilbury (1150–1228), a medieval chronicler, was the first person to associate the transformation of werewolves to the moon and its cycles, but his concept was never popular until it was used by modern fiction writers.

Source: Icon Group International, Victims: Webster’s Quotations, 489; Summers, Vampire in Lore and Legend, 92

Руваш (Рувош)

Вампирские предания румынских цыган рассказывают о вампирической ведьме, называемой руваш. Помимо способности создавать больше представителей своего вида с помощью магии, она также может превращаться в волка, но гораздо более крупного, чем обычный. Гервасий Тильберийский (1150-1228) — средневековый летописец, был первым, кто связал превращение оборотней с луной и ее циклами, но его концепция никогда не была популярной, пока ей не воспользовались современные писатели-фантасты.

Источник: Icon Group International, Victims: Webster’s Quotations, 489; Summers, Vampire in Lore and Legend, 92

Rusalka. Статья из "Энциклопедии вампирской мифологии" Т. Бэйн

 
Rusalka (Roo-SAW-ka)
Variations: Mokosh, Rusalky, Samovily

In the Republic of Slovenia there is a type of vampiric fay known as a rusalka (“shore”), said to be a member of the Unseelie Court, a spinner of Fate, and a regulator of the seasons. It is created when a child dies before it has been baptized or if an adolescent dies a virgin.

Rusalka descriptions vary slightly from region to region. In some areas it looks like a young girl on the brink of womanhood — very beautiful with long, flowing HAIR that is GREEN and decorated with poppies. In other places the rusalka wears a beautiful gown or tunic or nothing more than some strategically placed leaves. Other accounts describe the rusalka as looking like a drowned corpse or a mermaid. Its male counterpart is called a VODYANIK. It looks like a very handsome young man, but no matter where it is or what it is wearing, the left side of its body is always wet. But no matter the region one is in or the gender of the rusalka one may see, it will always be attractive and in or near the water.

On the nights of the full moon, rusalka can be found in ponds or rivers, and it will kill cattle and horses that come too close to the water’s edge. If it sees a handsome man, it will lure him into the water with it, as it is looking for someone to pass the night in pleasure with. However, the man seldom survives the experience; the rusalka ends up draining him of his youth and life (see ENERGY VAMPIRE), and more often than not, forgets in the throes of passion that its human lover needs to breathe air. However, the very few men who have managed to escape the embrace of a rusalka say that its love is literally worth dying for. Apart from men, from time to time a rusalka will want a child of its own and will snatch one up from the water’s edge. It takes the child to its home under the water, where the human will inevitably drown.

Rolang. Статья из "Энциклопедии вампирской мифологии" Т. Бэйн

 
Rolang (ROLL-ing)
Variations: Rô-Lang

A type of Tibetan magic user known as a ngagspa can perform a very precise and dangerous spell ceremony that will create a vampiric REVENANT called a rolang (“corpse who stands up”). The sole purpose for his wanting to create such a creature is to obtain the creature’s tongue, a powerful magical item.

The ngagspa locks himself in a room with a corpse that he has procured. He then lies on top of it and empties his mind of all thought except for the magical incantation he is continuously repeating to himself. He will eventually place his lips on top of the corpse’s lips and use his arms to keep the corpse’s arms pinned down.

Sooner or later, the corpse, now a rolang, will try to rise and escape. The ngagspa must prevent this from happening while his lips maintain contact with the rolang’s lips. If even so much as an instant of separation occurs, the spell will be broken, the ngagspa will lose control of the vampire, and it will rampage through the village, killing everyone it sees by ripping bodies apart. No one will survive the assault; even its touch is fatal. Nothing will remain but a decimated town littered with bodies. It is said that only a scant few lamas are still in existence who know the magical rites that will stop the rolang, causing it to lie back down and return to its former state of being, a harmless corpse.

However, if the ngagspa can maintain the spell and the physical contact long enough, the rolang’s tongue will make its way out of its mouth and into the ngagspa’s, who must then bite down as hard as he can, severing the tongue. As soon as this happens, the rolang will collapse dead and the ngagspa will have a powerful and hard-won magical item.

Ride. Статья из "Энциклопедии вампирской мифологии" Т. Бэйн

 
Ride (Ride)

The word ride, when used in context of a vampiric attack, refers to a specific type of sexual assault on a victim. There are numerous species of vampires that utilize this method of assault, many of which are energy vampires, and the best known is perhaps the ALP of German lore (see GERMAN VAMPIRES).

To commit an act of riding, a vampire typically seeks out a person who is asleep. Upon entering the room, the vampire usually induces a form of sleep paralysis, rendering the victim unable to move or speak but otherwise fully aware of his surroundings. By either sitting upon his chest or straddling the victim, the vampire then causes some varying amount of pressure to the person’s body. From this position the vampire may engage in some level of sexual activity with its prey, and this is done for a variety of reasons, be it attempting to cause a nocturnal emission, steal semen, or impregnate a woman. What the vampire is doing, in essence, is creating energy, sexual in this case, that it feeds off of in addition to any other activities it may be involved in. It is not uncommon for a vampire, after it has consumed its required need for sexual energy, to then attack its prey, draining him of some to all of his blood.

It should be noted that although the amount of pressure the vampire uses upon its prey may be great enough to kill in some cases, the act of riding is not about crushing a person to death but rather absorbing his vital energy and essences (such as sexual energy and related bodily fluids) (see ENERGY VAMPIRE).

Source: Botting, Gothic, 139; Leatherdale, Dracula the Novel and Legend; Krevter, Der Vampirglaube in Sudosteurope, 433; Williams, Ways of Knowing in Early Modern Germany, 65

Revenant. Статья из "Энциклопедии вампирской мифологии" Т. Бэйн

 
Revenant (Rev-a-nint)

The word revenant, a variation of the French word revenir (“to return”), simply means “one who has returned after death or a long absence.” It is used in vampiric lore to describe any being or creature that has died, risen up from its grave, and returned to a kind of “unlife” (or UNDEATH) among the living. Not all revenants are vampires, although many types of vampires are revenants.

Source: Ashley, The Complete Book of Vampires; Barber, Vampire, Burial and Death, 85; Day, Vampires, 194

Ревенант (Рэванайнт)

Слово ревенант, вариация французского слова ревенир («возвращаться»), просто означает «тот, кто вернулся после смерти или долгого отсутствия». Оно используется в преданиях о вампирах, чтобы описать любое существо или создание, которое умерло, восстало из могилы и возвратилось к некой «нежизни» (или немертвию) среди живых. Не все ревенанты являются вампирами, хотя многие типы вампиров являются ревенантами.

Источник: Ashley, The Complete Book of Vampires; Barber, Vampire, Burial and Death, 85; Day, Vampires, 194

Redcap. Статья из "Энциклопедии вампирской мифологии" Т. Бэйн

 
Redcap (Red-cap)
Variations: Powrie

In Scotland and Wales there lives a type of vampiric fay called a redcap. Looking like a small and twisted old man with big teeth, long fingers, and skinny arms, it wears boots made of iron with iron spikes on the soles. The redcap gets its name from the hat it wears upon its head. White originally, it has turned red because the little fay is always trying to mop up the blood of its victims.

Redcaps live in abandoned places where there was once a great amount of violence, like a battlefield or a place of execution. Highly territorial, they will attack anyone who walks too near their home by utilizing their amazing strength to drop boulders on victims’ heads.

Unlike most fay, the redcap is not susceptible to iron, as its boots prove. However, reciting verses from the Bible, showing it a CRUCIFIX, or sprinkling it with holy water will drive it off.

Lord Soulis of Hermitage Castle had a redcap as a familiar (see SOULIS, LORD OF HERMITAGE CASTLE).

Source: Dorson, The British Folklorists, 111; IGI, Folklore, 248; Masters, Natural History of the Vampire, 140; Summers, Geography of Witchcraft, 205

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