Слыша по ночам всякие крики, вздохи и другие пугающие звуки славяне думали что это шумят домашние духи, злая версия домовых - баечники.

Баечники - это ночные домашние духи, живущие в подвалах. Баечников в доме бывает четыре или пять, Они появляются после того, как все лягут спать. По ночам они бродят по дому и хохочут, кричат, шуршат, постукивают, мерещатся в тёмных углах и т.д. Если в это время включить свет, можно увидеть убегающие тени. Очень не любят, чтобы за ними наблюдали. В отличие от домовых, лучше с баечниками не разговаривать, иначе можно опасно заболеть. Лучшая защита от их нападений - плюнуть и под одеялом спрятаться. Также можно круг обережный солью и перцем насыпать.
Можно договорится с домовым, объединившись с ним для войны с баечниками.
В старые времена были заговоры, которыми люди спасались от баечника, но они забылись.

Brahmadaitya. Статья из «Призраки, чудовища и демоны Индии»


A Brahmadaitya is the ghost of a dead brahmin man. He usually appears wearing wooden shoes and a white dhoti, with a sacred thread across its chest.

Apart from this physical description, not many generalizations can be made. Some Brahmadaityas are kindly spirits, while others are vindictive and murderous. Some are known for obnoxiously showing off their knowledge of Sanskrit. Others are content to let the living alone unless their tree of residence is disturbed.

Some say Brahmadaityas are the ghosts of brahmins who died without ever marrying. Others say they are the ghosts of brahmins who were murdered or died unnatural deaths. Still others use the word as a synonym of Munjya, meaning the ghost of a brahmin who died shortly after the ceremonial tying of his sacred thread.

One well-known tale tells of a poor brahmin (a still-alive one) who is on the verge of starvation when he hears about a haunted vakula tree (Mimusops elengi). The tree is known to be home to a legion of evil ghosts who attack anyone who approaches. The zamindar of the area has offered a huge plot of land to anyone brave enough to cut a branch from the tree.

The brahmin, who figures he has nothing to lose, decides to take up the challenge, and walks bravely towards the tree. One hundred evil ghosts advance towards him menacingly; but among them is a brahmadaitya, who speaks kindly to the poor brahmin. They become friends. The other ghosts, following the Brahmadaitya’s instructions, cut a branch from the tree and give it to the poor brahmin.

The brahmin presents the branch to the zamindar, who recognizes that it really has come from the haunted tree. So the brahmin claims the land as his reward, and proceeds to plow and plant it.

Bootham. Статья из «Призраки, чудовища и демоны Индии»


Although the Tamil word Bootham is etymologically related to the Hindi Bhoot, the two terms describe very different spirits*. The Bootham is the more powerful of the two. While Bhoots tend to be restricted to the house or the village they died in, Boothams are free to roam the earth. They can assume practically any form at all.

In older Tamil texts a Bootham was a ferocious guardian spirit. The epic tale Silappathikaram (“The Story of the Anklet”), set in the time of the early Chola Kingdom, tells of a huge statue that stood at the intersection of four roads at the entrance to the port city of Poompuhar. This stone monster was called the Sathukka Bootham. It was supposed to protect the city from liars, hypocrites, and thieves. If anyone spoke slander about a woman of Poompuhar, the Bootham would come to life in the nighttime, drag them out of their houses, and wring their necks.

In later stories, Boothams have come to bear a strong resemblance to the Jinn of Muslim lore.

Like the Jinn-in-the-lamp from the tale of Aladdin, a Bootham is capable of supernatural speed, approximating instantaneous movement. It is also immensely strong. If a Bootham is given the task of building a thousand palaces, he can finish the job before you snap your fingers. Boothams can cause things to move without touching them. They can also conjure objects from thin air.

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Bonga. Статья из «Призраки, чудовища и демоны Индии»


The Munda languages are a group of 22 tribal languages spoken in East and Central India. The best known of these is Santali, with about eight million speakers. It is also the only one with official status at the national level. Mundari — spoken by the Munda tribe, which has given its name to the whole group — has just over one million speakers. The Ho language has about the same. A few of the others, such as Gutob and Turi, have so few speakers that they are seriously endangered.

These languages are not Indo-Aryan languages, like Hindi or Bengali. Neither are they Dravidian languages, like Tamil or Telugu. Nor yet are they Sino-Tibetan languages like Ladakhi, Mizo, or Bodo. They belong to a fourth family: the Austroasiatic languages, which includes faraway relatives like Vietnamese.

Most people who speak Munda languages have a traditional faith that bears little resemblance to Hinduism. Many instead call it Sarnaism or Sarna Dharam, a term which unifies the faith of the different tribes.

Bonga, in Sarnaism and related belief systems, is a general term for a supernatural entity. This includes deities, such as the creator god Sing Bonga (also known as Thakur Jiu), as well as ambivalent spirits, malevolent entities, and ghosts.

Anthropologists who have studied the Santals and other tribes have remarked on how believers do not talk much about the Bongako (the plural form) — partly out of fear of divine power, and partly because of the spirits’ unknowability. Furthermore, the deities of Sarnaism are not worshipped as idols, but in a sacred grove of sal trees, called the sarna sthal. As a result, there is little in the way of physical descriptions of these entities.


Согласно поверьям Рьока, гаушуш - человечек размером с ребенка, покрытый черными перьями и имеющий красные круглые светящиеся глаза. Он появляется в лесах близ деревень, забирается на ветки и начинает издавать зловещее уханье. При приближении человека гаушуш сразу убегает. Неизвестно, зачем гаушуш таким занимается. Возможно, ему просто нравится мешать людям спать и вырывать их по ночам из постелей.

Boba. Статья из «Призраки, чудовища и демоны Индии»


The word Boba means “mute” in Bengali. It is also the name of the evil spirit who is the personification of sleep paralysis.

While scientists would refute the existence of most of the entities in this book, sleep paralysis is a real and well-documented phenomenon. Medical doctors explain it as certain aspects of REM sleep intruding upon consciousness. It typically occurs in patients who are sleep-deprived, or who suffer disturbed sleep.

Sleep paralysis is experienced either just before falling asleep or just after waking. One finds oneself lying supine in bed, aware but completely unable to move or speak, with an intense and painful pressure on the chest. Some people claim to see a witch or ghost sitting on top of them, staring into their faces.

This ghost has many different names in different world languages. In Tamil, for example, it is called Amuku Pey; in the Shona language of Zimbabwe, it is called Madzikirira; in old English folklore, it is called the Night Hag.

Bengali accounts differ as to what Boba looks like (if indeed it is visible at all). Some stories say that if Boba returns too often — that is, if the person keeps experiencing the paralysis night after night — then Boba will eventually strangle them to death.

Ref: 34. Bhattacharya, Rohit. (2018, August 9). 11 Scary Ghosts From Indian Folklore That Are The Stuff Nightmares Are Made Of. ScoopWhoop; 418. Wikipedia contributors. (2020, November 20). Ghosts in Bengali culture. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.

Blemmyae. Статья из «Призраки, чудовища и демоны Индии»


The Blemmyae or Akephaloi are a race of people without heads. Their eyes and mouths grow on their chests (though in some depictions, females of the race have their eyes on their shoulders).

The first known mentions of Blemmyae are found in European descriptions of the Nile Valley in Africa. Many later texts say that they lived in India as well. The Wonders of the East, a thousand-year-old manuscript written in Old English, describes the Indian Blemmyae as giants, eight feet tall and eight feet wide.

Ref: 251. Nichols, Andrew. (2008). The Complete Fragments of Ctesias of Cnidus: Translation and Commentary with an Introduction [Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida]. The University of Florida Digital Collections; 454. Atsma, Aaron J. Blemmyes. Theoi Project. Retrieved November 15, 2020.

Bira. Статья из «Призраки, чудовища и демоны Индии»


The Bira or Bira Mwdai is a troublesome poltergeist-like female spirit from Assam. In the wild they rarely bother humans, but they can be caught and domesticated by black magicians, who then set them against their enemies. In the house of their owners, they live in the guise of rats; the owner feeds them and offers them an occasional animal sacrifice. When they attack, they turn invisible.

Bira hauntings result in rocks raining down through the roofs of houses, clothing getting mysteriously ripped to shreds in the almirah, dirty slippers appearing in pots of cooked food. Biras harass babies and leave bite marks on their legs. They can also possess people and make them forget things, or cause hysterical fits.

A Churuni Bira is a type of Bira that specializes in stealing food from kitchens.

Some believe that Biras are the ghosts of women who died by suicide. Others class them as a variety of Khetor.

Ref: 170. Kennedy, W. (2012). Motherland Ghost Stories. Issuu; 285. R., Daimary. (2017). Witch Hunting in Bodo Society of Kokrajhar District Assam: A Socio Political Study [Doctoral Dissertation, Bodoland University]. Shodhganga.

Bido Tech Lau. Статья из «Призраки, чудовища и демоны Индии»

Bido Tech Lau

In the folklore of the tribes of the Andaman Islands, Lau are ghosts of the dead (They were called Chauga in the language of South Andaman). The Bido Tech Lau or Ti-Miku Lau are jungle spirits, one of the two main varieties of Lau. The other type is the Jurua, or sea-spirits.

Bido Tech Lau are usually invisible, but they can show themselves to the living whenever they wish to do so. Humans who have seen them describe them as fearsome and ugly. They have light skin and long, flowing hair and beards (in stark contrast to the dark skin and afro-textured hair of living Andamanese). The spirits are also said to have small, dwarf-like bodies with elongated limbs.

They live in villages deep in the jungle. These villages are protected from the outside world by impenetrable thickets of Calamus tigrinus (“bido”), a thick cane covered with sharp thorns. Bido Tech Lau translates as “Spirits of the Calamus Leaf”.

The Bido Tech Lau sometimes catch mortals who venture too close to their encampments. If the captured mortal shows any fear, they kill him, and his spirit becomes one of them; but if he is brave, they may allow him to visit their village, keeping him there for some time before releasing him back to human habitation.

A person who has undergone this experience becomes endowed with magical powers. He may disappear again from time to time to visit his spirit-friends for a few days at a stretch.

Bido Tech Lau rarely visit human settlements, but they will attack any person who wanders alone late at night in the forest, making him fall suddenly and violently ill. Therefore, it is always safer to travel in a group. Lau are scared of fire, arrows, human bones, beeswax, and red paint, so these can be used to ward them away if one is compelled to make a solo nighttime journey.